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Binance - https://accounts.binance.com/en/register?ref=Z56RU0SP. 輸入前一個區塊的hash( previous_hash )、交易明細組成的Merkle Tree的根 merkle_root 、欲挖掘的 nonce 透過 SHA-256 生成一個初始的 hash_initialize (這一步就是Bitcoin產生hash的過程)。 讓i從從0到63,依序把 hash_initialize 右移i個位元 位移後除以交易個數後取餘數就可以得到要取出交易( transaction ) 取出該筆的交易( transaction )的交易序號( tx_id )後再左移i個位元.

Blockchains show promise as potential infrastructure for financial transaction systems. Its key idea, Proof-of-Useful-Work (PoUW), involves miners providing trustworthy reporting on CPU cycles they devote to inherently useful workloads. REM flexibly allows any entity to create a useful workload. The security of blockchains today, however, relies critically on Proof-of-Work (PoW), which forces participants to waste computational resources. We show through economic analysis that REM achieves less waste than PoET and variant schemes. We present REM (Resource-Efficient Mining), a new blockchain mining framework that uses trusted hardware (Intel SGX). The result is the first full implementation of an SGX-based blockchain. To address the risk of compromised SGX CPUs, we develop a statistics-based formal security framework, also relevant to other trusted-hardware-based approaches such as the Intel Proof-of-Elapsed-Time (PoET). We experiment with four example applications as useful workloads for our implementation of REM, and report a computational overhead of 5-15%. REM achieves security guarantees similar to PoW, but leverages the partially decentralized trust model inherent in SGX to achieve a fraction of the waste of PoW. We implement REM and, as an example application, swap it into the consensus layer of Bitcoin core. REM ensures the trustworthiness of these workloads by means of a novel scheme of hierarchical attestations that may be of independent interest.

Ez egy ötletes megközelítés, amelyet az RSK átvett. Ahelyett, hogy saját nyelvet hoznának létre, és a fejlesztőket bizonyos munkára kényszerítenék, lehetővé teszik számukra, hogy a legnépszerűbb intelligens szerződéses nyelvet (Solidity) használják a dApps létrehozására..

sparc-bannerFinally, they provide only limited privacy guarantees, as they do not offer recipient anonymity or payment value secrecy. Strong privacy and regulation are seemingly conflicting features, but we overcome this technical problem with a new regulation mechanism based on zero-knowledge proofs. Decentralized cryptocurrencies based on blockchains provide attractive features, including user privacy and system transparency, btc but lack active control of money supply and capabilities for regulatory oversight, both existing features of modern monetary systems. PRCash is the first digital currency to provide control of money supply, transparency, regulation, and privacy at the same time, and thus make its adoption as a fiat currency feasible. We propose a novel digital currency, called PRCash, where the control of money supply is centralized, money is represented as value-hiding transactions for transferability and improved privacy, and transactions are verified in a distributed manner and published to a public ledger for verifiability and transparency. Strong privacy and regulation are seemingly conflicting features, but we overcome this technical problem with a new regulation mechanism based on zero-knowledge proofs. Our implementation and evaluation shows that payments are fast and large-scale deployments practical. PRCash is the first digital currency to provide control of money supply, transparency, regulation, and privacy at the same time, and thus make its adoption as a fiat currency feasible. These limitations are critical, especially if the cryptocurrency is to replace, or complement, existing fiat currencies. We propose a novel digital currency, called PRCash, where the control of money supply is centralized, money is represented as value-hiding transactions for transferability and improved privacy, and cryptocurrency transactions are verified in a distributed manner and published to a public ledger for verifiability and transparency. Our implementation and Binance evaluation shows that payments are fast and large-scale deployments practical. For more information, please see our paper. Centralized cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, provide controlled supply of money, but lack transparency and transferability.



A gyökértörzs egy közösség által vezérelt fejlesztési javaslati rendszert (RSKIP) használ. Az RSK eredeti fehér könyve hosszú távú kormányzási modellt javasol, amelynek célja a közösség összes szereplőjének képviselete, amely 5 helyből álló irányító testületet biztosít:

Sparc Launching Soon"Margin positions being liquidated caused a wave of additional sell pressure, as assets that had been held as collateral were forcibly sold to pay for margin loans," said Hayden Hughes, chief executive officer at Alpha Impact in Singapore.

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